- RASHIDA OYINDAMOLA LAWAL
SKIN DISORDERS, EFFECTS, AND CARE
Skin disorders are diseases that can damage the skin or organs in the body.
Disorder on the skin is basically from the diet, environment, chemical reaction, hormones and more. Like the saying goes 'you are what you eat'
Skin disorder can be categorized into 3; primary lesion, secondary lesion, and tertiary lesion. Lesions are the changes in the tissue or organs of the body caused by an injury or disease such as Marks, scar, wound, etc
Primary disorders are the diseases or disorders that are in the early stage of development or change. They are usually the unpleasant changes you notice on the body.
1. Cyst, a closed develop sac containing fluid and Infection below then skin. An acne cyst is an example.
2. Papule knew as pimple it's a small elevation on the skin that contains no fluid. It may develop into a pustule.
3. Pustule are inflamed papules white a whitish or yellowish center containing white blood cells and bacteria, it may or may not be caused by infection.
4.Tumor: this is a swelling of any part of the body caused by abnormal growth or tissue
Other primary lesions include wheal, bulla, vesicle, macule, and nodule
Secondary lesions of the skin develop in the later stage of the disease and usually, it changes the structure of the tissue and organ
1.Excoriation,a skin sore usually occurring from scratching the skin
2.Acne excoriee, a disorder occurring where a person purposely scrapes off acne lesion which eventually causes a discoloration
3.The crust, dead cells formed over a wound or blemish while its healing resulting in the accumulation of pus and sebum.
4.Fixture, a crack in the skin that may penetrate into the dermis
4.Keloid,a thick scar resulting from excessive growth of fibrous tissue(collagen)It usually occur after a surgery or an injury
5. Scar, discolored slightly raised marks on the skin formed after an injury
6.Scale, excessive shedding of dead skin cells, flaky skin cells. An example is eczema and psoriasis.
Disorder of the oil gland is disorder as a result of a defect in the sebaceous gland that is oil gland.
1.Acne,comedo,furuncle, carbuncle,milia,sebaceous hyperplasia,seborrhea and more
1. Acne is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder of the oil gland characterized by blemish and comedones. It occurs when follicles become plugged with oil and dead skin cells. There are many types of acne, the most common is known as acne simplex or acne vulgaris characterized by blackheads or whiteheads, pimples, oily skin and sometimes redness.
2. Comedo plural is comedones. A noninflamed build up of cells, sebum and other debris inside the follicles. Comedo can be open or closed comedo, an open comedo is a blackhead open at the surface and exposed to air. It occurs when the follicle is filled with an excess of oil, it gets dark from being exposed to oxygen.
A closed comedo forms when the openings of the follicles are blocked with white cells and debris. It is usually referred to as a white head.
3. Furuncle is also is known as a boil, a tender dome-shaped skin lesion caused by bacteria in glands or hair follicles.
4. Carbuncles are a group of a boil
5. Seborrhea, a severe oiliness of the skin, an abnormal secretion of oil.
6.Seborrheic dermatitis, a skin condition characterized by redness, dry or oily scaling or itching. Eczema is a common form of seborrheic dermatitis
Another form of skin order are the ones that occur as a result of the defect in the sweat gland.
1. Milia rubra is also known as prickly heat. This is an acute inflammatory disorder of the sweat gland resulting in itching and burning from excessive heat exposure
2.Anhidrosis, a deficiency in perspiration due to the failure of the sweat gland, usually from fever or skin disease. This requires medical treatment
3.Bromhidrosis, foul smell perspiration usually in the armpits or the feet. It is usually caused by bacteria and yeast that breaks down the sweat on the surface of the skin.
4.Hyperhidrosis, excessive perspiration caused by heat,genetics, medication or medical conditions
Other Inflammation(redness)of the skin include Dermatitis such as eczema, papules, postures
Dermatitis could be contact, Atopic, and Seborrheic
Contact Dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin caused by an allergic reaction or contact with an irritant. Usually from a skincare product, makeup, detergent, fabric, jewelry.
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic worsen form of dermatitis.
Seborrheic dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin. It is characterized by painful, itching disease of the skin; acute or chronic in nature with dry moist lesions.
Examples are Eczema,psoriasis,folliculitis,edema
This is caused by various factors could be internal or external. Sun exposure is the biggest external cause of pigmentation disorder and can also make existing pigmentation disorder worse.
The 2 types of pigmentation disorder are Hyperpigmentation that is an overproduction of pigment and Hypopigmentation this is no pigment.
Hyperpigmentation appears in various form:
Chloasma also called a liver spot. It is an increased pigmentation usually from sun exposure. Melasma is a type of chloasma which appears during pregnancy. It is triggered by hormonal changes.
Lentigo, this is similar to freckle. A flat pigmented area of the skin, small yellowish-brown spots. Lentigines are multiple freckles. Freckles are tiny round or oval pigmented skin on areas exposed to the sun.
Nevus also is known as a birthmark, a malformation of the skin from abnormal pigmentation
Stain, an abnormal brown or wind colored skin discoloration with an irregular shape.
Hypopigmentation occurs in different ways
Albinism, this is characterized by a lack of melanin pigment in the body, the person is at risk of skin cancer, is sensitive to light and ages early without normal melanin protection.
Leukoderma, vitiligo are also examples of Hypopigmentation
Skin tags, mole, wart, Keratosis Pilaris, keratitis, actinic keratosis are also types of skin disorder which are abnormal growth of the skin
Today the common skin disorder faced my Nigerian include Acne, Freckle, Sunburn, melasma, skin tag, varicose vein and a few other skin disorder
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